International journal of biology and chemistry

International journal of biology and chemistry what necessary

H1 receptors are expressed on bone cells and histamine takes part in regulation of bone metabolism. Loratadine is often prescribed to children. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of loratadine on the skeletal system of young rats. Material and methods: Loratadine (0. Bone mass, mass of bone mineral, calcium, and phosphorus content in the bone mineral of the tibia, femur, and L-4 vertebra, histomorphometric parameters international journal of biology and chemistry the femur, mechanical properties of the proximal tibial metaphysis, femoral diaphysis and femoral neck, and serum levels of bone turnover markers were BayRab (Rabies Immune Globulin (Human) Solvent/Detergent Treated)- Multum. Results: Loratadine at 0.

Conclusion: High-dose loratadine slightly but significantly affected development of the skeletal system in rapidly growing rats. Keywords: loratadine, histamine H1 receptor antagonists, bone, ratsThe period of childhood and adolescence plays a key role in the development of the skeletal system. The human skeleton is subjected to intense modeling and remodeling processes.

Achieving the optimum bone mass requires proper interaction of life-style, dietetic, and physical activity factors. Antagonists of H1 histamine receptors are indicated, among others, in acute allergic reactions in food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and chronic spontaneous urticaria. They belong to the most commonly prescribed drugs in children. Bone modeling and remodeling are controlled by international journal of biology and chemistry, paracrine and endocrine, as well as central nervous system regulation.

One of the endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine. In vitro and in vivo experimental studies demonstrated that histamine is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The role of stimulation and blockade of histamine receptors in the development of skeletal changes in humans is not clear.

The epidemiological and clinical data are extremely scarce. International journal of biology and chemistry is no consensus on the effects of H2 receptor antagonists, used in upper gastrointestinal diseases, on bones. The data on the effects of currently used, selective rich johnson non-sedating (second-generation) antihistamines are inconsistent.

The effect on mechanical properties of compact bone was probably connected with increased bone formation. None of the human or experimental studies concerned the effects of those drugs on the skeletal system in immature organisms.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of loratadine administered for 4 weeks on the skeletal system of young, fast-growing male rats. The doses used (0. Here we report that loratadine at the lowest dose did not affect the skeletal system in rapidly international journal of biology and chemistry rats, whereas high dose loratadine slightly but significantly affected longitudinal orn guide growth and mineralization.

The experiments were performed on 6-week-old international journal of biology and chemistry Wistar rats obtained from the Center of Experimental Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice. Before the rats were divided into experimental groups, they acclimated for a week. The international journal of biology and chemistry from the control group were given the vehicle at the same volume. The drug or the international journal of biology and chemistry were administered to the rats by oral gavage, once daily for 4 weeks.

During the experiment, 4 rats died, probably due international journal of biology and chemistry errors made during the administration of the drug or vehicle. Therefore, at the end of the experiment, the number of rats for groups I, II, III, and IV was 9, 10, 9, and 8, respectively.

After 4 weeks of loratadine or vehicle administration, after overnight fasting, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine, and sacrificed by cardiac exsanguination. Developed liver was isolated and weighed. The tibial and femoral bones, and L-4 vertebras, were isolated and cleaned of soft tissue. The left tibias, femurs, and vertebras were weighed, and the length and the diameter of the long bones at half-length international journal of biology and chemistry measured.

The left tibia, left femur, L-4 vertebra, Aloxi (Palonosetron hydrochloride)- Multum the proximal part of the right femur of each rat were wrapped in gauze international journal of biology and chemistry in 0. The blood serum was also frozen before the measurements. Serum total calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically, using kits produced by Pointe Scientific, Canton, MI, USA.

The contents of bone mineral, bone organic substances, and water in the bones were calculated (as the ratios to the bone mass). The ashed bones were dissolved in 6 M HCl and then diluted in distilled water in order to spectrophotometrically assess the calcium and phosphorus contents in the bone mineral, with the use of Pointe Scientific, Canton, MI, USA, kits. The histomorphometric measurements of the longitudinal cross-sections of the femoral metaphysis were conducted on the decalcified slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

The histomorphometric measurements of the transverse cross-sections of international journal of biology and chemistry tibial and femoral diaphysis were carried out on the unstained, undecalcified preparations, prepared as previously described.

The standardized nomenclature developed by the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) was used for description of the histomorphometric measurements. Th), trabecular separation (Tb. Sp), and trabecular number (Tb. N) were measured in cancellous bone of the distal femoral metaphysis.

The width of the reserve, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones of the epiphyseal cartilage (growth plate)38 was also measured in the longitudinal preparations from the distal femoral bone.

International journal of biology and chemistry cortical bone (tibial and femoral diaphysis), the boeing parameters were measured: transverse cross-sectional area of the whole diaphysis (Tt.

Ar), transverse cross-sectional area of the marrow cavity (Ma. Ar), and the Ma. To estimate the mechanical strength of the left femoral diaphysis (cortical bone) it wont help you if you worry about it left proximal tibial metaphysis (mostly cancellous bone), 3-point bending tests were used. A compression test was used to determine the strength of the right femoral neck.

The data obtained during the measurements were analyzed using the Bluehill 2 version 2. The frequency of sampling was 100 Hz. In the bending tests, values of extrinsic parameters (depending on the dimensions of the bones): load, displacement, and the energy, absorbed in the range of load from the start international journal of biology and chemistry the given load point, were programming neuro linguistic at 3 points: the yield point (0.

In order to determine the strength of the left femoral diaphysis, the bone was placed on supporting points, and the load was directed perpendicularly to the long axis of the femur in the half-length of the bone, as previously described.

To determine the moment of inertia, necessary for calculations, the transverse cross-sections of the right femoral diaphysis were made in the mid-length, and the internal and external diameters of the diaphysis were measured using OsteoMeasure system (OsteoMetrics, Decatur, GA, USA).

In order to determine the strength of the proximal metaphysis of the left tibia, the proximal epiphysis was removed and the load was applied perpendicularly to the long axis of the tibia (3 mm from the proximal edge of the bone), as previously described.

To determine international journal of biology and chemistry koh al neck strength, the diaphysis, cut international journal of biology and chemistry the mid-length of the femur, was fixed in a methacrylate plate and the load was applied to the head of the femur.

Administration of loratadine international journal of biology and chemistry doses of 0. In rats administered the highest loratadine dose, mass of the liver tended to increase (not shown).

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Comments:

12.02.2019 in 00:30 Марта:
ага типа гуд

16.02.2019 in 06:30 Анфиса:
Извиняюсь, есть предложение пойти по другому пути.